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Resources and Economic Activities in Eastern Africa| Grade 6 Social Studies

Resources and Economic Activities in Eastern Africa

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Resources and Economic Activities in Eastern Africa

A. Large Scale Crop Farming In East Africa

- Farming is the growing of crops and keeping of livestock.
- Large scale farming is the growing of crops and keeping of livestock in large estates.
- Large scale farming is also called large commercial farming.

Characteristics of large scale farming

  1. Crops are grown in large estates called plantations.
  2. One type of crop is grown in large estates.
  3. Crops are grown for sale or for commercial purposes.
  4. Some large scale farming requires use of machines like sugarcane, wheat and maize.
  5. Chemicals such as herbicides, fungicides, fertilizers are used.
  6. It requires large capital to operate.

Contributions and Benefits of Large Scale Farming

- Creates job opportunities to many people.
- Products from large scale farming are exported and earn the country foreign exchange.
- It is a source of income to the farmers.
- It earns the country domestic revenue through taxes.
- Some of the crops are sources of food. This creates food security.

Different crops are grown in large scale in the following countries
  1. Sugarcane - Sudan
  2. Coffee - Kenya and Ethiopia
  3. Tea - Kenya
  4. Wheat - Kenya
  5. Maize - Kenya and Tanzania
  6. Sisal - Kenya and Tanzania

B. Beef farming in Eastern Africa

- Beef farming is the keeping or rearing of cattle for meat or beef production.
- Beef cattle includes; Abadeen Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Zebu, Boran.
- Beef farming can be influenced by;
    1. Presence of large grazing land:- Beef farming requires large land.
    2. Absence of tsetseflies and other pests.
    3. Availability of pasture
    4. Flat land which enables easy movement of cattle while grazing.
    5. Favourable climatic conditions:- Moderate rainfall that can enable grass to grow.

Contributions of beef farming to the economy of Eastern Africa

- Beef farming provides beef as food.
- Creates job opportunities to many people.
- It is a source of income for many people.
- Earns the country foreign exchange.
- It is a source of revenue to the government through taxes.
- Has led to the improvement of transport and communication.

Challenges facing beef farming in Easern Africa

- Lack of water and pasture due to prolonged drought.
- Attacks by pests and diseases.
- Lack of capital to purchase the modern facilities.
- Cattle rustling.
- Overstocking.
- Poor means of transport and communication.
- Lack of veterinarian services.

Possible solutions to challenges facing beef farming in Eastern Africa

- Drilling boreholes and digging wells to provide water.
- Investing more capital or money in beef farming.
- Providing veterinary services.
- Establishing more slaughter houses.
- Reducing the number of stock to solve the problem of overstocking.
- Improving the quality of livestock through cross breeding.

C. Fishing in Eastern Africa

- Fishing is the activity of harvesting fish from water.
- An area where fishing is done is called a fishing groung.
- There are two types of fishing grounds;
  1. Inland fishing ground - Involves fresh lakes, rivers, dams, fish ponds and swamps.
  2. Marine fishing ground - Where fish is harvested from sea or ocean.
- In inland fishing grounds, fish caught are;

Tilapia, Trout, Nile Perch, Dagaa/Omena, Cat fish, Black bass, Salmon

- In marine fishing grounds, the fish caught are;

Parrot fish, Mullet, King fish, Tuna, Lobsters, Oysters, Crabs, Pawns

- Fishing methods used in marine fishing include;
  • Purse seining
  • Trawling
  • Long lining
  • Net drifting/ Gill net

Challenges facing fishing in Eastern Africa

- Oil spillage in the sea.
- Lack of adequate facilities such as fishing and storage facilities.
- Use of harmful chemicals.
- Lack of adequate capital.
- Pollution of rivers and lakes resulting into death of fish.
- Overfishing in some fishing grounds.

D. Wildlife and Tourism in Eastern Africa

- Tourism is the activity of travelling for leisure and pleasure to places of interest.
- Wildlife refers to wild animals, plants and birds in their natural habitat.

Factors that promote tourism in Eastern Africa

1. Peace and security.
2. Good means of transport and communication.
3. Standard hotel and accommodation.
4. Availability of variety of tourist attractions such as wildlife, natural sceneries, historical sites and cultural activities.
5. Support from the government through funds and training of personnel.

Challenges facing tourism in Eastern Africa

1. High level of poverty.
2. Poor means of transport and communication in some countries.
3. High charges and fees discourage local tourists.
4. Competition from well developed countries.
5. Insecurity and terrorism that scare tourists away.

Transport in Eastern Africa

- Transport is the movement of goods and people from one place to another.
- Some of the forms of transport include; road, water, air, railway, pipeline and cable.
- Road transport is the most common form of transport in Eastern Africa.

A. Road Transport

- In road transport people and goods are transported using vehicles, motorbikes, bicycles and carts.
- There are two major highways in Eastern Africa.
  1. The Trans-African Highway;- Starts from Mombasa in Kenya passes through Uganda, Rwanda, DRC Congo, Cameroon and ends in Lagos in Nigeria.
  2. The Great North Road;- Starts from Cape Town in South Africa to Cairo in Egypt. It crosses Tnazania, South Sudan and Sudan.

Challenges facing Road Transport in Eastern Africa

  1. Insecurity.
  2. Road accidents
  3. High cost of construction
  4. Bad weather

B. Railway transport

- This is the movement of people and goods using the railway.
- It is used in transporting bulky goods on land.
- All countries in Eastern Africa have a railway line except Somalia.

Challenges facing Railway Transport in Eastern Africa

  1. High cost of construction
  2. Different gauges
  3. Insecurity

C. Air transport

- Air transport involves use of airplanes. They are used to transport people and goods.
- It is the fastest.
- It is used to transport perishable goods.
- It operates on a strict timetable.

Challenges facing Air Transport in Eastern Africa

  1. Bad weather
  2. High cost of aircrafts
  3. It is expensive

D. Pipeline transport

- Pipeline transport has been used in transporting water from one place to another.
- Recently pipelines have been used to transport oil and petroleum in Eastern Africa.
- The main pipelines in Eastern Africa are;-
    1. Kenya pipeline - Runs from Mombasa to Nairobi then to Kisumu and Eldoret.
    2. The Greator Nile Oil pipeline in Sudan.
    3. The Gas Pipeline from Ethiopia to Djibouti.
    4. The Crude Oil Pipeline from Uganda to Tanzania.
    5. The Oil Pipeline from Lamu in Kenya to South Sudan.

Challenges facing Pipeline Transport in Eastern Africa

  1. Expensive to build and maintain
  2. Oil spillage
  3. Oil siphoning(stealing)

E. Water Transport Network in Eastern Africa

- Water transport is used to transport people and goods to other countries and from other countries to Kenya.
- Water transport is divided into two:-
    (i) Marine water transport
    (ii) Inland water transport
- The main marine water transport in Eastern Africa is the Indian Ocean.
- The main sea ports are:-
  • Kenya;- Mombasa
  • Tanzania;- Dar es Salaam
  • Sudan;- Port Sudan along the Red sea
  • Eritrea;- Port Massawa along the Red sea
  • Djibouti;- Djibouti
  • Somalia;- Mogadishu
- The main inland water transport in Eastern Africa is L.Victoria.

Challenges facing Water Transport in Eastern Africa

  1. Piracy
  2. Bad weather(storms)
  3. Accidents

F. Cable Transport

- It is used in transporting electricity.
- It is the fastest means of transport.

Solutions to challenges facing transport networks in Eastern Africa

1. Encouraging walking in short distances instead of using vehicles.
2. Building of By-passes to decongest major roads.
3. Expanding roads to accommodate more vehicles.

Communication in Eastern Africa

- The common means of communication in Eastern Africa are; Electronic and printed.
- Electronic means include; Mobile phones, internet, radio and television.
- Printed means include; Newspapers, magazines, journals and letters.

Challenges facing communication networks in Eastern Africa

- Lack of capital to buy modern equipment.
- Poor network coverage.
- Power black outs.
- Illiteracy.
- Lack of technical skills.
- Bad weather.

Solutions to challenges facing communication networks in Eastern Africa

- Improving security.
- Improving electricity and internet network coverage.
- Allocating more funds in communication.
- Teaching communication skills in schools.

Mining in Eastern Africa

A. Soda Ash Mining in Kenya

- Soda ash occurs naturally in rocks called Trona.
- Trona is found in L.Magadi in Kajiado County in Kenya.
- A floating machine called a dredger is used to mine Trona from the lake.
- This method of mining is called dredging.
- Trona is crushed and mixed with water forming a solution called slurry.
- It is then pumped to the nearby factory where the impurities are separated.
- Soda ash is obtained and packed in various sizes.

B. Gold Mining in Tanzania

- Gold is mined in Bulyanhulu in Shinyanga region of North Western Tanzania.
- The rocks containing gold are called reefs.
- Gold in Tanzania is mined through a method called shaft.
- The miners use excavators to remove the upper part of the mines.
- They dig shafts into the ground along the veins, sometimes they use small explosives to remove the gold bearing rocks (reefs).

C. Limestone Mining in Uganda

- Limestone is mined in Itima and Tororo in Uganda.
- Limestone is mined through quarrying and opencast.
- The miners use Bulldozers.
- The limestone is packed in lorries and taken to the cement factories nearby.

Effects of mining on the environment in Eastern Africa

1. Open mines log water that harbors pests that causes diseases like malaria and water borne diseases.
2. Leads to land degradation.
3. Causes water pollution.
5. Causes air pollution.

Solutions to problems associated with mining

1. Planting grass.
2. Levelling the holes left behind by the miners.
3. Planting trees where mining has taken place.