# Living Together in Africa

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# Living Together in Africa

Last Updated: 31st May 2020

## Physical Environment

#### Position

- Africa lies with Latitude 37°N and 35°S and Longitude 52°E and 17°W.
- it borders the Indian OCean to the East and the Atlantic ocean to the West.
- It borders also the Mediterranean sea to the North and the Red Sea to the NorthEast.

#### Size

- Africa is the second largest continent in the world.
- Asia is the largest continent.
- Australia and New Zealand are the smallest

#### Shape

- Africa is wide to the North and narrower to the South.
- It has a regular coastline.

Position and Shape of Africa - Image Courtesy

### Countries Of Africa And Their Location

Countries Of Africa And Their Location - Image Courtesy

- Algeria is the largest country in Africa
- Seychelles is the smallest country in Africa

### Major Latitudes and Longitudes

#### Latitudes

- Latitudes are imaginary lines that run from East to West on a map
- Equator is the main latitude
- Latitudes are not of the same length
- Latitudes are parallel.

#### Longitudes

- They are imaginary lines that run from North pole to South pole.
- The Prime meridian is the main longitude.
- All longitudes are of the same length.
- A longitude is used to calculate time.

Latitudes and Longitudes - Image Courtesy

## Rotation and Revolution of the Earth

- Rotation is the movement of the Earth on its own axis

#### Time Calculation

- The Earth rotates 360° in 24 hours which is equal to 1 day.
- The Earth rotates from West to East on its own axis
- When calculating the time of a location, we add if a place is to the East and subtract if the place is to the West.
Example
If the time is 7:00 a.m in Accra which is at 0°, what is the time in Nairobi which is 45° E.

1° = 4 Minutes
45° = 45 x 4 = 180 Minutes = 3 hours
Nairobi is to the East of Accra hence we add 3 hours to the time in Accra.
7.00 a.m + 3 hours = 10.00 a.m
Time in Nairobi is 10.00 a.m

#### Effects Of Rotation Of The Earth On Time

1. It causes day and night
2. It causes a difference in time in different parts of the world
3. It causes rise and fall of tides

#### Effects of revolution of the Earth

- Revolution is the movement of the Earth round the sun.
- One complete revolution takes 365¼ days.
- Revolution causes 4 seasons.
• Spring
• Autumn
• Winter
• Summer

Seasons Caused by Revolution of the Earth - Image Courtesy

- It also influences the length of day and night hours.
- It influences the position of the overhead sun in certain months.

## Map Read and Interpretation

- A map is a representation of part or the whole of the Earth's surface on a piece of paper

#### Elements of a map

- These are qualities that a good map should have.
- They include:
1. Title - It shows the are and type of information contained on the map
2. Key - It contains the symbols and explains what they stand for on the map
3. Scale - It is the relation of the distance on the ground and the distance covered on the map
4. Compass - Used to tell direction on a map
5. Frame - It is drawn around a map to show the extent of the are covered by the map
6. Symbols - They are used to represent certain features on the map E.g Hills, Rivers