# Living Together in Africa

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# Living Together in Africa

Last Updated: 31st May 2020

## Physical Environment

#### Position

- Africa lies with Latitude 37°N and 35°S and Longitude 52°E and 17°W.
- it borders the Indian OCean to the East and the Atlantic ocean to the West.
- It borders also the Mediterranean sea to the North and the Red Sea to the NorthEast.

#### Size

- Africa is the second largest continent in the world.
- Asia is the largest continent.
- Australia and New Zealand are the smallest

#### Shape

- Africa is wide to the North and narrower to the South.
- It has a regular coastline.

Position and Shape of Africa - Image Courtesy

### Countries Of Africa And Their Location

Countries Of Africa And Their Location - Image Courtesy

- Algeria is the largest country in Africa
- Seychelles is the smallest country in Africa

### Major Latitudes and Longitudes

#### Latitudes

- Latitudes are imaginary lines that run from East to West on a map
- Equator is the main latitude
- Latitudes are not of the same length
- Latitudes are parallel.

#### Longitudes

- They are imaginary lines that run from North pole to South pole.
- The Prime meridian is the main longitude.
- All longitudes are of the same length.
- A longitude is used to calculate time.

Latitudes and Longitudes - Image Courtesy

## Rotation and Revolution of the Earth

- Rotation is the movement of the Earth on its own axis

#### Time Calculation

- The Earth rotates 360° in 24 hours which is equal to 1 day.
- The Earth rotates from West to East on its own axis
- When calculating the time of a location, we add if a place is to the East and subtract if the place is to the West.
Example
If the time is 7:00 a.m in Accra which is at 0°, what is the time in Nairobi which is 45° E.

1° = 4 Minutes
45° = 45 x 4 = 180 Minutes = 3 hours
Nairobi is to the East of Accra hence we add 3 hours to the time in Accra.
7.00 a.m + 3 hours = 10.00 a.m
Time in Nairobi is 10.00 a.m

#### Effects Of Rotation Of The Earth On Time

1. It causes day and night
2. It causes a difference in time in different parts of the world
3. It causes rise and fall of tides

#### Effects of revolution of the Earth

- Revolution is the movement of the Earth round the sun.
- One complete revolution takes 365¼ days.
- Revolution causes 4 seasons.
• Spring
• Autumn
• Winter
• Summer

Seasons Caused by Revolution of the Earth - Image Courtesy

- It also influences the length of day and night hours.
- It influences the position of the overhead sun in certain months.

- A map is a representation of part or the whole of the Earth's surface on a piece of paper

#### Elements of a map

- These are qualities that a good map should have.
- They include:
1. Title - It shows the are and type of information contained on the map
2. Key - It contains the symbols and explains what they stand for on the map
3. Scale - It is the relation of the distance on the ground and the distance covered on the map
4. Compass - Used to tell direction on a map
5. Frame - It is drawn around a map to show the extent of the are covered by the map
6. Symbols - They are used to represent certain features on the map E.g Hills, Rivers

## Physical Features

#### Mountains

- Mountains are grouped according to how they are formed.
- The following are the types of mountains
a) Volcanic Mountains
- They are formed when magma is released and accumulates on the earth's surface.
- Examples of volcanic mountains are Mt. Kenya, Mt. Elgon, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Mt. Longonot and Mt. Nyiragongo.

Latitudes and Longitudes - Image Courtesy

b) Fold Mountains
- They are formed when compressional forces pushes on flexible rocks to fold and depressions.

Fold-mountains - Image Courtesy

-Examples of fold mountains are Cape Ranges, Atlas Mountains and Drakensburg.

c) Residual mountains
- Residual mountains are formed after erosion takes place over a long period of time.
- The weaker layer of the mountain is removed leaving more resistant layer of the mountain.
- Example of the residual mountains are Mt. Tibesti, Ahagger mountains and Mt. Kilimambogo.

Fold-mountains - Image Courtesy

#### Formation Of Lakes

- Lakes are grouped according to how they are formed
- The following are types of lakes.
1) Rift Valley lakes
- They are found on the floor the Rift Valley which is as a result of faulting.
- Examples include Lakes Turkana, Lake Nakuru, Lake Baringo and Naivasha.
2) Depressional lakes
- E.g Lake Victoria, Lake Chad, Lake Bengweulu and Lake Kyoga.
- E.g Lake Masinga, Lake Nasser and Lake Volta.
4) Crater lakes
- E.g Lake Ngozi in Tanzania, Lake Chala in Tanzania and lake Bosumtwi in Ghana.
5) Ox-bow lakes
- - E.g Lake Kanyaboli, Lake Shakabobo, Lake Gambi and Lake Utange.
6) Tarns or cirques
-E.g Lake Catherine, Lake Teleki, Lake Speke and Lake Gallary.

## Relief Regions Of Africa

#### Rift Valley

* It starts in Jordan and ends in Mozambique.
* It is 7,200 km long.

#### Coastal plains

* It borders the sea between 0m-200m above sea level.
* Sandbars, beaches, lagoons and coral reefs are found there.
* Africa has a regular coastline.

#### Plateaus

* They cover most of Africa's land surface.
* Plateaus with fertile soils are good for farming.
* Examples are Jos Plateau, Nyika Plateau and Bie plateau.

#### Highlands

* Most highlands are cool and wet.
* Altitude is up to 3000m above sea level.
* Highlands have fertile soils.

## Climate

#### Factors Influencing Climate In Africa

The factor influencing climate in Africa include:
1. Wind
2. Relief
3. Altitude
4. Ocean currents
5. Latitude
6. Distance from large water bodies
7. Nature of the coastline

#### Climatic Regions Of Africa

Climatic Regions of Africa - Image Courtesy

1. Equatorial climate
2. Mediterranean climate
3. Desert climate
4. Warm temperature climate
5. Savanna or tropical climate
6. Mountain climate

#### Characteristic Of Climate Regions Of Africa

- The following are the characteristics of climatic region experienced in Africa.
1) Equatorial climate
* It lies between 5° North and 5° South.
* Experiences high temperature throughout the year.
* It's wet throughout the year.
* Diurnal range of temperature is small and ranges between 2° Celsius to 3° Celsius.
* The region receives convectional rainfall mainly in the afternoon.
*the region also experiences high humidity.
2) Savanna or tropical climate
* Lies between 5° North and 15° South.
* Has a wet season and dry season.
* Rainfall decreases as the distance from the equator increases.
3) Mediterranean climate
* Experienced along the coast of Mediterranean Sea in Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria.
* Also experienced along the South-West coast of Africa around Cape Town.
* Experiences four seasons which are spring, summer, autumn and winter.
* The highest temperature is about 25° Celsius and the lowest is 10° Celsius.
4) Desert climate
* They are hot and dry.
* Rainfall received is less than 250mm per year.
* Experiences high temperature throughout this year.
* Has a clear sky during the day and at night.
* Has extremely low temperature at night and very high temperature during the day.
5) Warm temperature climate
* Experienced in South-East coast of Africa.
* Highest amounts of rainfall received in summer.
* Has seasons; hot and we summers and warm and wet winters.
6) Mountain climate
* Increase in height leads to decrease in temperature.
* It's cool and wet throughout the year on the windward side.
* Experienced in the highland regions.
-

#### Seasons Experienced In Africa

- Seasons are caused by revolution of the earth around the sun.
- Most parts in Africa experience two seasons. They are:
• Hot and dry season
• Cool and wet season
- Some parts along the Mediterranean coast and the South-West coast experience four seasons.

#### Influence Of Climate On Human Activities

1. Deserts discourages human settlements
2. Cool areas encourages dairy and crop farming
3. Savanna grasslands support pastoralism , ranch and tourism
4. Hot and wet areas are good for crop farming

## Vegetation

- The Vegetation zones of Africa are:
• Equatorial vegetation
• Savanna vegetation
• Mediterranean vegetation
• Mountain vegetation
• Semi-desert and desert vegetation

Climatic Regions of Africa - Image Courtesy

#### Factors Influencing Distribution Of Vegetation

- The main factors influencing the distribution of vegetation in Africa include:
• Climate
• Soil fertility
• Relief
• Human activities
• Government policies

#### Types of Vegetation Zones

Equatorial rainforest
- Tall tress with little or no undergrowth.
- Trees are mainly hardwood.
- Climbers and creepers are common.
- Trees have broad leaves forming a thick canopy.
Savanna vegetation
There are two types of savanna vegetation:
a) Savanna grassland. - It mainly consist of grass and few short scattered trees.
b) Savanna Woodland. - It has more trees than grass.
- Savanna vegetation provides homes for wild animals.
- Main types of trees found in savanna are acacia and baobab.
Mediterranean vegetation
- Trees are mainly softwood.
- trees shed their leaves during the dry season.
- Trees are deep rooted.
- Trees have waxy and shiny leaves.
- Trees have thick barks which reduce water loss.
Semi-desert and desert vegetation
- Vegetation is mainly made up of cactus and short tough grass.
- Plant have long roots and thorny leaves.
- Plants have small shiny and waxy leaves.
Mountain vegetation
- It's also known as heath and moorland.
- It's ever green.
- Grows in bands.
- Influenced by altitude.