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Class 6 Science - Plants

Plants - Pollination, fertilization and germination

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Plants - Pollination, fertilization and germination

Parts of a Flower

The flower is the reproductive part of a flowering plant.
Some flowering plants include beans, peas, and maize, among others
The following is an illustration showing parts of a flower.

Parts of a Flower

Functions of Parts of a Flower

  1. Petals - they attract insects to facilitate pollination
  2. Sepals - they protect flowers during the budding stage
  3. Stalk - they offer support to the flower
  4. Anthers - they produce pollen grains
  5. Filament - they hold the anthers
  6. Stigma - they receive pollen grains during pollination
  7. Syle - holding the stigma and connecting it to the ovary
  8. Ovary - this contains the ovules
  9. Ovules - they are the female cells that develop into seeds
NOTES
- The male part of a flower is called the stamen/. It consists of anthers and the filament.
- The female part of a flower is called the pistil or carpel. It consists of the stigma, style, ovary and ovules.
- Petals are also called corolla while sepals are also called calyx.

Pollination

This is the transfer of pollen grains from anthers to stigma
Pollination happens through wind or insects,w hich are the agents of pollination.
There are two types of pollination (cross pollination, self pollination). Cross polination occurs when pollen grains move from one plant to another.

Cross Pollination

On the other hand, self pollination occurs when pollen grains move from the anthers to the stigma of one flower or another flower on the same plant.

Self Pollinaion


The following table shows the charcateristics of wind and insect pollinated flowers

Self Pollinaion

Fertilization

Fertilization occurs when pollen grains unite with ovules, which is the union of a male sex cell and a female sex cell.
This fertilization occurs in the ovary.
After fertilization has taken place, the ovary grow into a fruit while ovules develop into seeds.

Parts of a Seed

Parts of a Seed

- The testa/seed coat protects the inner parts of a seed.
- Micropyle allows water and air to enter the seed during germination.
- Hilum is a scar formed when a seed is removed from the fruit.
- Cotyledon stores food ina bean seed.
- Endosperm stores food in a maize grain.
- Plumule develops into shoot after germination.
- Radicle develops into a root after germination.

Conditions Necessary for Germination

Germination occurs when a seed starts developing into a plant.
In order for a seed to germinate, it needs water, oxygen and warmth.
Water dissolves the food in the cotyledon or endosperm.
Oxygen is needed for respiration, which provides the energy needed for the seed to grow.
Warmth makes the developing cells active.

Water in Germination
To show that water is needed for germination, one can use the following experiment.

Water in Germination

There was germination in B and not in A because A doies not have water and B has water.

Oxygen in Germination
To show that oxygen is needed for germination, one can use the following experiment.

Oxygen in Germination

There was germination in B and not in A, because B does no have oxygen.
When water has been boiled, oxygen is removed and oil prevents any oxygen from from dissolving into the water.
Warmth in Germination
To show that warmth is needed for germination, one can use the following experiment.
Seed are put in two glasses with wet cotton wool
One of the glasses is then dipped in a bigger container filled with ice.
Germination occurs in the beaker that has NOT been dipped in ice, and not in the other one in ice.
This is because the ice crystals lower temperature and remove warmth, making it hard for seeds to germinate.

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