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Health Education

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Health Education

Common Communicable Diseases

A communicable disease is one that can easily pass from one person to the other.
The medium for passing the disease could be contaminated air, water or insect bites
Such diseases include malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid, common cold, among others.


Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite called plasmodium
Plasmodium is carried about by the female anopheles mosquito which passes it on to a person through biting.
The parasite then attacks the bodies red blood cells.

Signs and Symptoms of Malaria

  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Severe headache
  • Cold and fever
  • Pain in the joints
  • General body weakness

Prevention of Malaria

  • Clearing broken bottles and empty containers from the home compound to ensure no mosquito breeding
  • Clearing tall grass and leafy plants where mosquitoes can breed
  • Sleeping under treated mosquito nets
  • Draining stagnant water around the house
  • Taking antimalarial drugs to prevent infection
  • Sprinkling oil of kerosene or oil on water surface to ensure mosquito larvae doesn't breed


Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria that attacks the lungs.
the bacteria can be spread through coughing and it gets into the air
Sharing cups, plates and spoons with an infected person can also spread the disease.

Signs and Symptoms of Tuberculosis

  • Prolonged coughing, usually dry cough
  • Fever and cold
  • Sweating at night
  • Pain in the chest
  • In advanced stages the patient coughs blood
  • Drastic loss of weight in a short period

Prevention of Tuberculosis

  • Practising high standards of cleanliness
  • Avoid places that are overcrowded
  • Do not take unboiled milk
  • Do not go to dusty places
  • Small children should be vaccinated with the BGG vaccine

Immunization for Infants

Immunization is the administration or giving of vaccines to a person so as to prevent a disease.
The administered medicine is called the vaccine, and the process is called vaccination or immunization.
When the vaccine is introduced into the body, it improves the immune system of the person against the disease.
Some of the immunizable diseases include; tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus.
The vaccine may be given as an injection, or through the mouth.
The following table is a summary of vaccines given to infants

Female Reproductive System


HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus
AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
It is mainly spread through having sexual contact with an infected person
It can also be spread by sharing sharp objects
A person who has the virus is said to be HIV positive, while one who does not have the virus is HIV negative.

Importance of HIV Testing

  • To overcome the fear of one's status
  • To change behaviour
  • To plan for the future of one's dependants
  • To make a decision on marriage
  • To campaign against the spread of HIV/AIDS

Effects of HIV and AIDS

  • It makes the individual's body weak
  • Low self-esteem
  • Feeling of guilt and worthless
  • Poor performance in school due to lack of concentration
  • One cannot interact freely with other people
  • Feeling of loneliness and shame
  • Lack of strength for activities

Effects of HIV and AIDS on the Family

  • Lack of parental care if parents die of HIV and AIDS
  • Leads to sadness in the family
  • Men may become widowers, women widowers, and children orphans; and families may lose the breadwinner
  • Family embarrassment and shame
  • Serious financial constraints due to a lot of spending on medication and seeking healthcare
  • Loss of income, job and family assets

Effects of HIV and AIDS to the Nation

  • Poor services may be rendered to the people if the victims are government employees as they may lack enough strength to deliver.
  • Large spending of money by government on buying drugs and other medical supplies.
  • Decrease in the economic productivity of the country due to people suffering from HIV.
  • Overcrowding in hospitals, which reduces the quality of medical care.
  • Loss of skilled manpower when infected persons die

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